Bandages are continuous length of fabrics and contain no joints. Their edges are evenly cut, parallel to the warp threads. They are reasonably free from loose threads. Bandages are chiefly made from plain or treated cotton cloths, but some of them are also made from wool. In addition to these, there are some bandages, which are made from fabrics containing a mixture of both cotton and wool. bandages may therefore be grouped into four categories according to the type of fabrics they are made from as follows:
Plain Cotton cloth Bandages
This is a white bandage, which contains not less than 43 threads per inch in the warp and 27 in the weft. A 2 by 4 yd open-wove bandage weighs not less than 12.96 g.
Bleached Calico Bandage:
This is a very closely woven white bandage containing 67 threads per inch in the warp and 58 in the weft. A 2 in by 4 yd bleached calico bandage weighs not less than 13.6 g.
This is a bleached bandage of fine threads. It may be regarded as a very closely woven absorbent gauze. It contains 48 threads per inch in the warp and 30 in the weft. One sq. ft of this bandage weighs not less than 3.25 g.
Unbleached Calico Bandage:
This bandage contains 65 threads per inch in the warp and 60 in the weft. A piece of 2 in by 4 yd size of this bandage weighs not less than 16.2 g.
Treated Cotton cloth Bandages
These bandages are made of cotton fabrics, which are variously treated to render them waterproof on one or both sides. They many be medicated or unmedicated. They include the following:
It is a bleached fabric, rendered impervious to water by proofing its both sides with rubber.
Jaconet This is also bleached fabric like Battiste, but it is waterproofed only on one side with rubber.
This is a yellow coloured cambric, rendered water proof by treatment with drying oils or oil modified synthetic resins.
Zinc paste Bandage:
It is a bleached open-wove bandage, impregnated with a zinc oxide paste.
These bandages are made from fabrics, which consist either entirely of wool or of a mixture of wool and cotton threads. They include the following bandages:
This consists of woolen fabric the threads of which have been raised to form a nap. It contains 26 threads per inch in the warp and 28 in the weft. A 2 in by 6 yd flannel bandage weighs not less than 58.3 g.
It is made up of a mixed fabric, which contains cotton threads in the warp (not less than 40 per inch) and wool threads in the weft (not less than 22 per inch). 2 in by 6 yd of this bandage weighs not less than 28.5 g.
This bandage also consists of a mixed fabric, which contains both wool and cotton threads in the warp and only cotton threads in the weft. However, it contains not less than 33.3 percent of wool, which is responsible for its crepe nature. When fully extended, the bandage must measure not less than twice the length of its unstretched condition. It must return to not more than two-thirds of the fully extended length after being held fully stretched for one minute.
Silk fabrics are used to prepare some special type of surgical dressings. One of them is the following:
Oiled Silk Bandage:
This bandage consists of a pure silk fabric having 120 threads per inch in the warp and 85 in the weft. The bandage is rendered completely waterproof by treating the fabric with a suitable drying oil or an oil modified synthetic resin. It may be coloured green with a suitable dye.